Compliance evaluation is a key element in assessing the effectiveness of fisheries monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) programmes and by extension the policies to which they relate. Trends in compliance can be very informative, both from a risk management perspective and also to gauge the rate at which industry is able to adapt to new policy or control measures. There are various ways in which compliance can be examined and assessed; their applicability and validity being dependent on data quality, fisheries, time series, the regulatory environment and the objectives of the assessment. Compliance evaluation is of particular value where compliance is used as a benchmarking tool by fisheries management agencies. Compliance may be expressed in several ways, both graphically and statistically. Perhaps the most appealing and visually comprehensible manner in which to express compliance is in the form of an index. The EFCA has been working since 2013 with the development of compliance evaluation methodologies, and is currently analysing with Member States the possibilities for an evaluation of compliance with the the landing obligation.